Scanning electron lithography
Scanning electron lithography is an engraving technique using an electron beam to hollow out a pattern on a surface. It is especially used to produce semiconductor electronic circuits and in the nanotechnology field.
It allows finer engraving than photolithography, which uses light and is also used in the manufacture of semiconductors. Engraving to the order to the nanometre can be achieved. The difference is due to the difference in wavelengths. The ultraviolet light used in photolithography causes diffraction phenomena which limit the minimum size of the engraving.