Gasification is a process used to transform a solid into a gas. Gasification is used to convert carbonaceous materials (fossil hydrocarbons, biomass) into a gas called syngas.
The process entails the pyrolysis of carbonaceous materials at high temperatures (400 to 1,000°C) followed by partial oxidation in air, water vapour or pure oxygen.
This type of transformation reduces the mass of organic matter by up to 70% and produces a synthetic gas that can be used directly as a fuel, or as a liquid after transformation using the Fischer-Tropsch process.
Gasification is therefore a technique for producing energy from fossil sources (coal) or renewable sources (biomass). It thus allows organic waste and non-food biomass (wood, straw, etc.) to be used in the form of gas or biofuel form (gas industry).
This technique has been used by countries in the past to produce fuel during trouble times such as wars or blockades. Gasification is currently being developed to recycle waste and produce energy from renewable sources, such as second generation biofuels or dihydrogen (H2).