Commuting, also called commuter travel, is the regular travel of a population in large urban centres between residential areas and workplaces or schools. The famous French expression métro-boulot-dodo(subway-work-sleep) describes this phenomenon, which is also referred to as 'the daily grind'.
This phenomenon is characterised by the dissociation of areas of activity (city centre, business area) from residential areas on the outskirts of the city (suburbs, peri-urbanised areas).
This type of mobility causes many problems in terms of managing public transport and communication channels during rush hours, in the morning, in the evening and to a lesser extent at lunchtime: pollution, traffic jams, parking spaces, etc.
Traffic jams are one of the consequences of commuting between residential areas and the workplace. © Curt Carnemark / World Bank