A biological corridor consists of all the habitats needed during the various stages of a species’ life cycle (reproduction, growth, shelter). These habitats are functionally linked to one another.
Thus, a series of temporary ponds, ditches, hedgerows and forests constitutes a biological corridor for the common toad, as long as the toad can move between these habitats without any particular threat to its life. If a very busy road separates a pond from the rest of these elements, the pond is excluded from the corridor. A toad crossing could potentially restore the connection between this pond and the rest of the corridor.
Biological corridors are therefore very important for the conservation of biodiversity and ecosystems, as they allow a species to reproduce and ensure the exchange of individuals and genes between several populations. They contribute to the genetic diversity of the species and the recolonisation of environments in the event of a disturbance (e.g. fire, storm).
All the biological corridors of species restricted to the same environment (forest, wetland, etc.) form an ecological corridor.
The Grand Canyon National Park (USA) with its wetlands, forms a biological corridor for certain amphibians, such as the Anaxyrus punctatus toad. © Ken Lund CC by-sa 2.0