A myelomeningocoele is a congenital malformation of the bladder. The disease causes increased pressure in the bladder which can ultimately threaten the kidneys. The disease also causes frequent urinary incontinence.
In 2001, a team of specialists from the Harvard Medical School and Wake Forest University used a revolutionary cell culture method to treat patients with this condition. They took muscle and urothelial cells from the patient's bladder, cultured the cells, and then placed them in biodegradable collagen moulds in the shape of bladders and then transplanted them.
Five years after the transplants the pressure had fallen in the bladders and the doctors did not find any complications or sequelae.