Age-related macular degeneration
Age-related macular degeneration (ARMD) is a chronic progressive incapacitating degenerative retinal disease which starts after the age of 50 years old.
It affects the macula selectively, causing degeneration of retinal visual cells.
Three types of ARMD are described, one early form and two late forms:
* the early form (approximately 30% of cases) is characterised by the presence of drusen;
* the atrophic form (approximately 50% of cases) is characterised by deterioration in the pigmented epithelium and a thinning of the macular due to progression of the drusen, which progresses slowly over the years;
* the exudative form (approximately 20% of cases) involves development of new choroidal blood vessels beneath the macula. This form of the disease can progress very quickly leading to loss of central vision (AV < 1/10) over a few weeks or months.