Sumoylation is one of the post-translational modifications commonly seen in proteins.
Sumoylation occurs in three stages and involves 2 to 3 catalytic enzymes:
Four types of SUMO proteins have been described until now.
Although related to ubiquitination (which leads to degradation of the target protein) in its biochemical process, sumoylation enables very different functions. These include regulation of the cell cycle, stabilisation of the protein, nuclear-cytoplasmic transport, regulation of transcription, etc.
Sumoylation causes a change in the target protein. a) the non-sumoylated protein can bind to the partner A, b) the sumoylated protein combines to a new protein B, but no longer with A, c) the protein changes conformation and no longer binds. © Nature reviews / Molecular Cell Biology